Friday, 20 May 2005
Lady in Red
by Chris DeBurg.
Making Love Out of Nothing At All
by Air Supply.
I'll Write A Song for You
by Earth, Wind & Fire.
Against All Odds
by Phil Collins.
She Needs Me
by Marvin Gaye.
Come Live With Me
by Marvin Gaye.
I Want You
by Marvin Gaye.
All In Love is Fair
by Stevie Wonder.
Send One Your Love
by Stevie Wonder.
Maybe We Can Try Again
Time Will Reveal
by El DeBarge.
by Angela Winbush.
by Natalie Cole.
Who's Holding Donna Now
by El DeBarge.
La Isla Bonita
Thursday, 19 May 2005
Ben-Jochannan, Yosef A.A., and John Henrik Clarke. New Dimensions in African History: The London Lectures of Dr. Yosef ben-Jochannan and Dr. John Henrik Clarke.
Edited with an Introduction by John Henrik Clarke. Trenton: Africa World Press, 1991.
Clarke, John Henrik. Notes for an African World Revolution: Africans at the Crossroads.
Trenton: Africa World Press, 1991.
Clarke, John Henrik. African People in World History.
Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1993.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality.
Translated from the French and edited by Mercer Cook. Translator's Preface by Mercer Cook. Westport: Lawrence Hill, 1974.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. Black Africa: The Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State.
Westport: Lawrence Hill, 1976.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. The Cultural Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of Patriarchy and of Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity.
Introduction by John Henrik Clarke. Afterword by James G. Spady. Chicago: Third World Press, 1978.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. Precolonial Black Africa: A Comparative Study of the Political and Social Systems of Europe and Black Africa, from Antiquity to the Formation of Modern States.
Translated from the French by Harold J. Salemson. Westport: Lawrence Hill, 1987.
Diop, Cheikh Anta. Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology.
Translated from the French by Yaa-Lengi Meema Ngemi. Edited by Harold J. Salemson and Marjolijn de Jager. Foreword by John Henrik Clarke. Westport: Lawrence Hill, 1991.
Finch, Charles S. III. The African Background to Medical Science: Essays on African History, Science and Civilizations.
Preface by Ivan Van Sertima. London: Karnak House, 1990.
Finch, Charles S. III. Africa and the Birth of Science and Technology: A Brief Overview.
Decatur: Khenti, 1992.
Hansberry, William Leo. Pillars in Ethiopian History: The William Leo Hansberry African History Notebook, Vol. 1.
Preface by Joseph E. Harris. Edited by Joseph E. Harris. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1974.
Hansberry, William Leo. Africa and Africans as Seen by Classical Writers: The William Leo Hansberry African History Notebook, Vol. 2.
Preface by Joseph E. Harris. Edited by Joseph E. Harris. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1977.
Hilliard, Asa G. III. The Maroon Within Us.
Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1994.
Houston, Drusilla Dunjee. The Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire. Book 1, Nations of the Cushite Empire. Marvelous Facts from Authentic Records.
Oklahoma City: Universal Publishing, 1926; rpt. Introduction by W. Paul Coates. Afterword by Asa G. Hilliard III. Commentary by James G. Spady. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1985.
Jackson, John G. Introduction to African Civilizations.
Introduction and Additional Bibliographical Notes by John Henrik Clarke. Secaucus: Citadel, 1970.
Jackson, John G. Ages of Gold and Silver and Other Short Sketches of Human History.
Foreword by Madalyn O'Hair. Austin: American Atheist Press, 1990.
James, George G.M. Stolen Legacy: The Greeks Were Not the Authors of Greek Philosophy, But the People of North Africa, Commonly Called the Egyptians.
1954; rpt. San Francisco: Julian Richardson Associates, 1985.
Parker, George Wells. The Children of the Sun.
Omaha: The Hamitic League of the World, 1918; rpt. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1978.
Rashidi, Runoko, and Ivan Van Sertima, eds. African Presence in Early Asia. Tenth Anniversary Edition.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1996.
Rogers, Joel Augustus. World's Great Men of Color, 2 Vols.
Edited with an Introduction, Commentary, and New Bibliographical Notes by John Henrik Clarke. New York: Collier, 1972.
Van Sertima, Ivan. They Came Before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America.
New York: Random House, 1977.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1983.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. African Presence in Early Europe.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1985.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Black Women in Antiquity.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1987.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Great Black Leaders: Ancient and Modern.
New Brunswick: Journal of Civilizations, 1988.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Egypt Revisited. Rev. ed.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1989.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. African Presence in Early America. Rev. ed.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1992.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Golden Age of the Moor.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1992.
Van Sertima, Ivan, ed. Egypt: Child of Africa.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1994.
Van Sertima, Ivan, and Larry Williams, eds. Great African Thinkers. Vol. 1, Cheikh Anta Diop.
New Brunswick: Journal of African Civilizations, 1986.
Williams, Chancellor. The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. Rev. ed.
Chicago: Third World Press, 1974.
Topic: Historical Data
"For a Samurai to be brave, he must have a bit of Black blood."
In 1994 I was invited to Japan to lecture at two United States military bases. It was to be my initial trip to east Asia and my second travel experience in Asia overall. I visited India for the first time in 1987. Japan turned out to be an exceptionally important trip for me and the lectures themselves went very well. I gained a great deal of information and for the first time I had the opportunity to interact with the Ainu
--some of Japan's most ancient residents. I also attended a really excellent exhibit on women in ancient Egypt while it was on tour in Tokyo.
Now I have always thought of Japan as a fascinating country and felt extremely fortunate to be able to travel there. But I felt like I knew quite a bit about the Black presence in early Japan even before I first touched down on Japanese soil.
THE BLACK PRESENCE IN EARLY JAPAN
Although the island nation of Japan, occupying the extreme eastern extensions of Asia, is assumed by many to have been historically composed of an essentially homogeneous population and culture, the accumulated evidence (much of which has been quietly ignored) places the matter in a vastly different light, and though far more study needs to be done on the subject, it seems indisputable that Black people in Japan played an important role from the most remote phases of antiquity into at least the ninth century.
Meaningful indications of an African presence in ancient Japan have been unearthed from the most remote ages of the Japanese past. To begin with, and as a significant example, a February 15, 1986 report carried by the Associated Press, chronicled that:
"The oldest Stone Age hut in Japan has been unearthed near Osaka....Archeologists date the hut to about 22,000 years ago and say it resembles the dugouts of African bushmen, according to Wazuo Hirose of Osaka Prefectural of Education's cultural division. `Other homes, almost as old, have been found before, but this discovery is significant because the shape is cleaner, better preserved' and is similar to the Africans' dugouts."
In 1923, anthropologist Roland B. Dixon
wrote that "this earliest population of Japan were in the main a blend of Proto-Australoid and Proto-Negroid types, and thus similar in the ancient underlying stratum of the population, southward along the whole coast and throughout Indo-China, and beyond to India itself." Dixon pointed out that, "In Japan, the ancient Negrito element may still be discerned by characteristics which are at the same time exterior and osteologic."
In his last major text, Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology (published posthumously in English in 1991), the brilliant Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop
(1923-1986) pointed out that:
"In the first edition of the Nations negres et culture (1954), I posited the hypothesis that the Yellow race must be the result of an interbreeding of Black and White in a cold climate, perhaps around the end of he Upper Paleolithic period. This idea is widely shared today by Japanese scholars and researchers. One Japanese scientist, Nobuo Takano, M.D., chief of dermatology at the Hammatsu Red Cross Hospital, has just developed this idea in Japanese that appeared in 1977, of which he was kind enough to give me a copy in 1979, when, passing through Dakar, he visited my laboratory with a group of Japanese scientists.
Takano maintains, in substance, that the first human being was Black; then Blacks gave birth to Whites, and the interbreeding of these two gave rise to the Yellow race; these three stages are in fact the title of his book in Japanese, as he explained it to me."
As to linguistics, in 1987 former Senegalese president Leopold Sedar Senghor
noted that, "The people who populate the island of Japan today are descendants from Blacks....Let us not forget that the first population of Japan was Black...and gave to Japan their first language."
SAKANOUYE NO TAMURAMARO: SEI-I TAI-SHOGUN OF EARLY JAPAN
Of the Black people of early Japan, the most picturesque single figure was Sakanouye no Tamuramaro, a warrior symbolized in Japanese history as a "paragon of military virtues," and a man who has captured the attention of some of the most distinguished scholars of twentieth century America. Perhaps the first such scholar to make note of Tamuramaro was Alexander Francis Chamberlain
(1865-1914). An anthropologist, Chamberlain was born in Kenninghall, Norfolk, England, and was brought to America as a child. In April 1911 the Journal of Race Development published an essay by Chamberlain entitled "The Contribution of the Negro to Human Civilization." While discussing the African presence in early Asia, Chamberlain stated in an exceptionally frank and matter of fact manner:
"And we can cross the whole of Asia and find the Negro again, for when, in far-off Japan, the ancestors of the modern Japanese were making their way northward against the Ainu, the aborigines of that country, the leader of their armies was Sakanouye Tamuramaro, a famous general and a Negro."
Dr. W.E.B. DuBois
(1868-1963), perhaps the greatest scholar in American history, in his book, The Negro (first published in 1915), placed Sakanouye Tamuramaro within a list of some of the most distinguished Black rulers and warriors in antiquity. In 1922, Carter G. Woodson
(1875-1950) and Charles Harris Wesley
(1891-1987) in a chapter called "Africans in History with Others," in their book The Negro in Our History, quoted Chamberlain on Tamuramaro verbatim. In the November 1940 issue of the Negro History Bulletin
(founded by Dr. Woodson), artist and illustrator Lois Maillou Jones
(1905-1998) contributed a brief article entitled "Sakanouye Tamura Maro." In the article Jones pointed out that:
"The probable number of Negroes who reached the shores of Asia my be estimated somewhat by the wide area over which they were found on that continent. Historians tell us that at one time Negroes were found in all of the countries of southern Asia bordering the Indian Ocean and along the east coast as far as Japan. There are many interesting stories told by those who reached that distant land which at that time they called `Cipango.'
One of the most prominent characters in Japanese history was a Negro warrior called Sakanouye Tamura Maro
Very similar themes were expressed in 1946 "In the Orient," the first section in Distinguished Negroes Abroad
, a book by Beatrice J. Fleming and Marion J. Pryde
in which was contained a small chapter dedicated to "The Negro General of Japan--Sakanouye Tamurarmaro."
In 1940 the great Joel Augustus Rogers
(1883-1966), who probably did more to popularize African history than any scholar of the twentieth century, devoted several pages of the first volume of his Sex and Race
to the Black presence in early Japan. He cites the studies of a number of accomplished scholars and anthropologists, and even goes as far as to raise the question of "were the first Japanese Negroes?" In the words of Rogers:
"There is a very evident Negro strain in a certain element of the Japanese population, particularly those in the south. Imbert says, "The Negro element in Japan is recognizable by the Negroid aspect of certain inhabitants with dark and often blackish skin, frizzly or curly hair....The Negritos are the oldest race of the Far East. It has been proved that they once lived in Eastern and Southern China as well as in Japan where the Negrito element is recognizable still in the population."
Rogers mentioned Tamuramaro briefly in the first volume of World's Great Men of Color
, also published in 1946. Regrettably, Rogers was forced to confess that "I have come across certain names in China and Japan such as Sakonouye Tamuramaro, the first shogun of Japan but I did not follow them up."
Sakanouye Tamuramaro was a warrior symbolized in early Japanese history as a "paragon of military virtues." Could it be that this was what Dr. Diop was alluding to in his first major book, Nations negres et culture, when he directed our attention to the tantalizing and yet profound Japanese proverb: "For a Samurai to be brave he must have a bit of Black blood."
Adwoa Asantewaa B. Munroe referenced Tamuramaro in the 1981 publication What We Should Know About African Religion, History and Culture, and wrote that "He was an African warrior. He was prominent during the rule of the Japanese Emperor Kwammu
, who reigned from 782- 806 A.D." In 1989 Dr. Mark Hyman authored a booklet entitled Black Shogun of Japan
in which he stated that "The fact remains that Sakanouye Tamuramaro was an African. He was Japanese. He was a great fighting general. He was a Japanese Shogun."
However the most comprehensive assessment to date of the Black presence in early Japan and the life of Sakanouye no Tamuramaro is the work of art historian and long-time friend and colleague Dr. James E. Brunson
. Brunson is the author of Black Jade: The African Presence in the Ancient East and several other important texts. In a 1991 publication entitled The World of Sakanouye No Tamuramaro Brunson accurately noted that "In order to fully understand the world of Sakanouye Tamuramaro we must focus on all aspects of the African presence in the Far East."
Sakanouye no Tamuramaro is regarded as an outstanding military commander of the early Heian royal court. The Heian Period (794-1185 C.E.) derives its name from Heian-Kyo, which means "the Capital of Peace and Tranquility," and was the original name for Japan's early capital city--Kyoto. It was during the Heian Period that the term Samurai was first used. According to Papinot, the "word comes from the very word samuaru, or better saburau, which signifies: to be on one's guard, to guard; it applied especially to the soldiers who were on guard at the Imperial palace."
The samurai have been called the knights or warrior class of Medieval Japan and the history of the samurai is very much the history of Japan itself. For hundreds of years, to the restoration of the Meiji emperor in 1868, the samurai were the flower of Japan and are still idolized by many Japanese. The samurai received a pension from their feudal lord, and had the privilege of wearing two swords. They intermarried in their own caste and the privilege of samurai was transmitted to all the children, although the heir alone received a pension.
The "paragon of military virtues," Sakanouye no Tamuramaro (758-811) was, in the words of James Murdoch:
"In as sense the originator of what was subsequently to develop into the renowned samurai class, he provided in his own person a worthy model for the professional warrior on which to fashion himself and his character. In battle, a veritable war-god; in peace the gentlest of manly gentlemen, and the simplest and unassuming of men."
Throughout his career, Tamuramaro was rewarded for his services with high civil as well as military positions. In 797 he was named "barbarian-subduing generalissimo" (Sei-i Tai-Shogun), and in 801-802 he again campaigned in northern Japan, establishing fortresses at Izawa and Shiwa and effectively subjugating the Ainu.
In 810 he helped to suppress an attempt to restore the retired emperor Heizei to the throne. In 811, the year of his death, he was appointed great counselor (dainagon) and minister of war (hyobukyo).
Sakanouye no Tamuramaro "was buried in the village of Kurisu, near Kyoto and it is believed that it is his tomb which is known under the name of Shogun-zuka. Tamuramaro is the founder of the famous temple Kiyomizu-dera. He is the ancestor of the Tamura daimyo of Mutsu." Tamuramaro "was not only the first to bear the title of Sei-i-tai-Shogun, but he was also the first of the warrior statesmen of Japan."
In later ages he was revered by military men as a model commander and as the first recipient of the title shogun--the highest rank to which a warrior could aspire."
Source: African Presence in Early Asia, edited by Runoko Rashidi and Ivan Van Sertima
For more information, go to: The Global African Presence
Askia the Great
Topic: Historical Data
Askia Mohammed I (Askia the Great)
Mohammed Ben Abu Bekr, also known as Askia the Great made Timbuctoo one of the world's great centers of learning and commerce. The brilliance of the city was such that it still shines in the imagination after three centuries like a star which, though dead, continues to send its light toward us. Such was its splendor that in spite of its many vicissitudes after the death of Askia, the vitality of Timbuctoo is not extinguished.
—Félix Dubois, Tombouctou, la mystérieuse
Mohammed Ben Abu Bekr, was considered the favored general of Sunni Ali, and believed that he was entitled to the throne after Sunni Ali's death, rather than Ali's son, Abu Kebr.
Claiming that the power was his by right of achievement, Mohammed attacked the new ruler a year later and defeated him (1493) in one of the bloodiest battles in history, a coup d'etat. When one of Sunni Ali's daughters heard the news, she cried out "Askia," which means "forceful one." This title was taken by Mohammed as his new name.
Askia immediately embarked on the consolidation of the empire left by Sunni Ali Ber. More astute and farsighted than Sunni Ali Ber, he identified Islam's potential to usurp traditional Songhai religion. Askia decidedly courted his Muslim subjects, particularly in Timbuktu, where the clerics and scholars who fled from Sunni Ali Ber had returned. Askia orchestrated a program of expansion and consolidation, ultimately extending the empire from Taghaza in the north to the borders of Yatenga in the south; and from Air in the northeast to Futa Toro in Senegambia. Askia was also setting the stage for the Askia dynasty, systematically removing the surviving members of the preceding dynasties.
Within three years, he solidified his position to the extent that he could leave the country for two years. For political and pious reasons, he made the hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca. In Cairo, he consulted with scholars and examined legal and administrative methods. In addition, an ambassador to Songhai was appointed and Askia was made caliph, thus becoming the head of the Islamic community in the Western Sudan. He returned to Songhai where he embarked on a program to reinforce and refine Islam.
Askia was an efficient and astute administrator. Instead of organizing the empire along Islamic lines, he improved on the traditional model. He instituted a system of government which was unparalleled in Songhai in particular and the Western Sudan in general. He divided the empire into defined provinces, each with its own governor. Special governors were appointed for the towns of Timbuktu, Jenne, Masina and Taghaza. The provinces were then grouped into regions, which were administered by regional governors. An advisory board of ministers supported each regional governor. The nucleus of the bureaucracy was Askia himself, assisted by a council of advisers. Islamic law prevailed in the larger districts in an effort to dispense with traditional law. It is worth noting that Islam was practiced in the urban areas, whereas the traditional Songhai religion continued in other areas. He also maintained a standing army, essentially for expansion of the empire
Soon after his return from Mecca, Askia embarked on his expansionist enterprise, where he ultimately extended the empire on all borders. He waged a successful jihad against the Mossi of Yatenga; captured Mali; defeated the Fulani and extended the borders farther north than any other Sudanic empire to Taghaza, famous for its salt mines. Years later, he conquered Hausaland and, in a subsequent campaign, seized Agades and Air.
Askia encouraged learning and literacy. Under Askia, Timbuktu, also known as "The Center of Learning," "The Mecca of the Sudan," and "The Queen of the Sudan," experienced a cultural revival and flourished as a center of learning. The University of Sankore produced distinguished scholars, many of whom published significant books. The eminent scholar Ahmed Baba produced many books on Islamic law, some of which are still in use today. Mahmoud Kati published Tarik al-Fattah and Abdul-Rahman as-Sadi published Tarik as-Sudan (Chronicle of the Sudan), two history books which are indispensable to present-day scholars reconstructing African history in the Middle Ages.
Askia fostered trade and commerce. State revenues were derived from estates founded throughout the nation, tributes exacted from vassal states, taxes, and custom duties. Timbuktu, Jenne and Gao were the commercial centers of the empire, and the trade routes were policed by the army to maintain their safety. In addition, he standardized weights and measures throughout the empire.
Askia's final years were filled with humiliation and suffering. In 1528, Askia Mohammed, now almost ninety years old and blind, was deposed by his son, Musa. Later, another son, Ismail, brought him back to the palace, where he died in 1538. The most illustrious reign in the history of the Western Sudan ended. Askia Mohammmed, regarded as the greatest of the Songhai kings, continued the work of Sunni Ali Ber and built the largest and wealthiest of the kingdoms of the Western Sudan.
, J. C. Degraft-Johnson. Black Classic Press, 1986.
Africans and Their History
, Joseph E. Harris. Penguin USA, second revised edition, 1998.
Ancient African Kingdoms
, Margaret Shinnie. E. Arnold.
General History of Africa, Vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to Sixteenth Century
, UNESCO. University of California Press, 1986.
The Western Sudan: Ghana, Mali, Songhay
, Kenny Mann. Dillon Press.
A Glorious Age in Africa: The Story of Three Great African Empires
, Daniel Chu and Elliott P. Skinner. Africa World Press, 1990.
Cambridge History of Africa, Vol. 2
, J.D. Fage (ed.). Cambridge University Press, 1979.
The Lost Cities of Africa
, Basil Davidson. Little, Brown & Co., 1959.
The Royal Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay: Life in Medieval Africa
, Patricia and Fredrick McKissack. Henry Holt, 1995.
Topics in West African History
, A. Adu Boahen, Jacob F. Ade Ajayi, and Michael Tidy. Addison-Wesley, 1987.
Topic: Historical Data
Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu
from The Description of Africa(1526)
El Hasan ben Muhammed el-Wazzan-ez-Zayyati was born in the Moorish city of Granada in 1485, but was expelled along with his parents and thousands of other Muslims by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492. Settling in Morocco, he studied in Fez, and as a teenager accompanied his uncle on diplomatic missions throughout North Africa and and to the Sub-Saharan kingdom of Ghana. Still a young man, he was captured by Christian pirates and presented as an exceptionally learned slave to the great Renaissance pope, Leo X. Leo freed him, baptised him under the name "Johannis Leo de Medici," and commissioned him to write in Italian the detailed survey of Africa which provided most of what Europeans knew about the continent for the next several centuries. At the time he visited the Ghanaian city of Timbuktu, it was somewhat past its peak, but still a thriving Islamic city famous for its learning. "Timbuktu" was to become a byword in Europe as the most inaccessible of cities, but at the time Leo visited, it was the center of a busy trade in African products and in books. Leo is said to have died in 1554 in Tunis, having reconverted to Islam.
What evidence does he provide that suggests the importance of learning in Timbuktu?
The name of this kingdom is a modern one, after a city which was built by a king named Mansa Suleyman in the year 610 of the hegira [1232 CE] around twelve miles from a branch of the Niger River. (1)
The houses of Timbuktu are huts made of clay-covered wattles with thatched roofs. In the center of the city is a temple built of stone and mortar, built by an architect named Granata, (2) and in addition there is a large palace, constructed by the same architect, where the king lives. The shops of the artisans, the merchants, and especially weavers of cotton cloth are very numerous. Fabrics are also imported from Europe to Timbuktu, borne by Berber merchants. (3)
The women of the city maintain the custom of veiling their faces, except for the slaves who sell all the foodstuffs. The inhabitants are very rich, especially the strangers who have settled in the country; so much so that the current king (4) has given two of his daughters in marriage to two brothers, both businessmen, on account of their wealth. There are many wells containing sweet water in Timbuktu; and in addition, when the Niger is in flood canals deliver the water to the city. Grain and animals are abundant, so that the consumption of milk and butter is considerable. But salt is in very short supply because it is carried here from Tegaza, some 500 miles from Timbuktu. I happened to be in this city at a time when a load of salt sold for eighty ducats. The king has a rich treasure of coins and gold ingots. One of these ingots weighs 970 pounds. (5)
The royal court is magnificent and very well organized. When the king goes from one city to another with the people of his court, he rides a camel and the horses are led by hand by servants. If fighting becomes necessary, the servants mount the camels and all the soldiers mount on horseback. When someone wishes to speak to the king, he must kneel before him and bow down; but this is only required of those who have never before spoken to the king, or of ambassadors. The king has about 3,000 horsemen and infinity of foot-soldiers armed with bows made of wild fennel [?] which they use to shoot poisoned arrows. This king makes war only upon neighboring enemies and upon those who do not want to pay him tribute. When he has gained a victory, he has all of them--even the children--sold in the market at Timbuktu.
Only small, poor horses are born in this country. The merchants use them for their voyages and the courtiers to move about the city. But the good horses come from Barbary. They arrive in a caravan and, ten or twelve days later, they are led to the ruler, who takes as many as he likes and pays appropriately for them.
The king is a declared enemy of the Jews. He will not allow any to live in the city. If he hears it said that a Berber merchant frequents them or does business with them, he confiscates his goods. There are in Timbuktu numerous judges, teachers and priests, all properly appointed by the king. He greatly honors learning. Many hand-written books imported from Barbary are also sold. There is more profit made from this commerce than from all other merchandise.
Instead of coined money, pure gold nuggets are used; and for small purchases, cowrie shells which have been carried from Persia, (6) and of which 400 equal a ducat. Six and two-thirds of their ducats equal one Roman gold ounce. (7)
The people of Timbuktu are of a peaceful nature. They have a custom of almost continuously walking about the city in the evening (except for those that sell gold), between 10 PM and 1 AM, playing musical instruments and dancing. The citizens have at their service many slaves, both men and women.
The city is very much endangered by fire. At the time when I was there on my second voyage, (8) half the city burned in the space of five hours. But the wind was violent and the inhabitants of the other half of the city began to move their belongings for fear that the other half would burn.
There are no gardens or orchards in the area surrounding Timbuktu.
Translated by Paul Brians
(1) Mansa Suleyman reigned 1336-1359. The city was in fact probably founded in the 11th century by Tuaregs, but became the chief city of the king of Mali in 1324.
(2) Ishak es Sahili el-Gharnati, brought to Tinbuktu by Mansa Suleyman.
(3) By camel caravan across the Sahara Desert from NorthAfrica.
(4) 'Omar ben Mohammed Naddi, not in fact the king, but representative of the ruler of the kingdom of Songhai.
(5) Such fabulous nuggets are commonly mentioned by Arab writers about Africa, but their size is probably grossly exaggerated.
(6) Cowrie shells, widely used for money in West Africa, sometimes came in fact from even farther away, from the Maladive Islands of Southeast Asia.
(7) A Sudanese gold ducat would weigh .15 oz.
(8) Probably in 1512.
Willie Lynch Letter
I greet you here on the bank of the James River in the year of our lord, one thousand seven hundred and twelve. First , I shall thank you, the gentlemen of the of the colony of Virginia, for bringing me here. I am here to help you solve some of your problems with slaves. Your invitation reached me in my modest plantation in the West Indies where I have experimented with some of the newest and still the oldest method for control of slaves. Ancient Rome would envy us if my program is implemented. As our boat sailed south on the James River, named for our illustrious KING JAMES, whose BIBLE we CHERISH, I saw enough to know that our problem is not unique. While Rome used cords or wood as crosses for standing human bodies along the old highways in great numbers, you are here using the tree and the rope on occasion.
I caught the whiff of a dead slave hanging from a tree a couple of miles back. You are losing valuable stock by hangings, you are having uprisings, slaves are running away, your crops are sometimes left in the fields too long for maximum profit, you suffer occasional fires, your animals are killed, Gentleman,...You know what your problems are; I do not need to elaborate. I am not here to enumerate your problems, I am here to introduce you to a method of solving them.
In my bag, I have a fool proof method for controlling your slaves. I guarantee everyone of you that if installed it will control the slaves for at least three hundred years. My method is simple, any member of your family or any OVERSEER can use it.
I have outlined a number of differences among the slaves, and I take these differences and make them bigger. I use FEAR, DISTRUST, and ENVY for control purposes. These methods have worked on my modest plantation in the West Indies, and it will work throughout the SOUTH. Take this simple little list of differences and think about them. On the top of my list is "AGE" but it is only there because it starts with an "A"; The second is"COLOR" or shade; there is INTELLIGENCE, SIZE, SEX, SIZE OF PLANTATION, ATTITUDE of owner, whether the slaves live in the valley, on a hill, east or west, north, south, have fine or coarse hair, or is tall or short. Now that you have a list of differences, I shall give you an outline of action- but before that, I shall assure you that DISTRUST IS STRONGER THAN TRUST, AND ENVY IS STRONGER THAN ADULATION, RESPECT OR ADMIRATION.
The black slave, after receiving this indoctrination, shall carry on and will become self-refueling and self-generating for hundreds of years, maybe thousands.
Don't forget you must pitch the old black VS. the young black males, and the young black male against the old black male. You must use the dark skinned slaves VS. the light skin slaves. You must use the female VS the male, and the male VS, the female. You must always have your servants and OVERSEERS distrust all blacks, but it is necessary that your slaves trust and depend on us.
Gentlemen, these kits are your keys to control, use them. Never miss an opportunity. My plan is guaranteed, and the good thing about this plan is that if used intensely for one year the slave will remain perpetually distrustful.
They Are Still Our Slaves
We can continue to reap profits from the Blacks without the effort of physical slavery. Look at the current methods of containment that they use on themselves: IGNORANCE, GREED, and SELFISHNESS.
Their IGNORANCE is the primary weapon of containment. A great man once said, "The best way to hide something from Black people is to put it in a book." We now live in the Information Age. They have gained the opportunity to read any book on any subject through the efforts of their fight for freedom, yet they refuse to read. There are numerous books readily available at Borders, Barnes & Noble, and Amazon.com, not to mention their own Black Bookstores that provide solid blueprints to reach economic equality (which should have been their fight all along), but few read consistently, if at all.
GREED is another powerful weapon of containment. Blacks, since the abolition of slavery, have had large amounts of money at their disposal. Last year they spent 10 billion dollars during Christmas, out of their 450 billion dollars in total yearly income (2.22%).
Any of us can use them as our target market, for any business venture we care to dream up, no matter how outlandish, they will buy into it. Being primarily a consumer people, they function totally by greed. They continually want more, with little thought for saving or investing.
They would rather buy some new sneaker than invest in starting a business. Some even neglect their children to have the latest Tommy or FUBU, And they still think that having a Mercedes, and a big house gives them "Status" or that they have achieved their Dream.
They are fools! The vast majority of their people are still in poverty because their greed holds them back from collectively making better communities.
With the help of BET, and the rest of their black media that often broadcasts destructive images into their own homes, we will continue to see huge profits like those of Tommy and Nike. (Tommy Hilfiger has even jeered them, saying he doesn't want their money, and look at how the fools spend more with him than ever before!). They'll continue to show off to each other while we build solid communities with the profits from our businesses that we market to them.
SELFISHNESS, ingrained in their minds through slavery, is one of the major ways we can continue to contain them. One of their own, Dubois said that there was an innate division in their culture. A "Talented Tenth" he called it. He was correct in his deduction that there are segments of their culture that has achieved some "form" of success. However, that segment missed the fullness of his work. They didn't read that the "Talented Tenth" was then responsible to aid The Non-Talented Ninety Percent in achieving a better life.
Instead, that segment has created another class, a Buppie class that looks down on their people or aids them in a condescending manner. They will never achieve what we have. Their selfishness does not allow them to be able to work together on any project or endeavor of substance. When they do get together, their selfishness lets their egos get in the way of their goal. Their so-called help organizations seem to only want to promote their name without making any real change in their community.
They are content to sit in conferences and conventions in our hotels, and talk about what
they will do, while they award plaques to the best speakers, not to the best doers. Is there no end to their selfishness? They steadfastly refuse to see that TOGETHER EACH ACHIEVES MORE (TEAM) .
They do not understand that they are no better than each other because of what they own , as a matter of fact, most of those Buppies are but one or two pay checks away from poverty. All of which is under the control of our pens in our offices and our rooms.
Yes, we will continue to contain them as long as they refuse to read, continue to buy anything they want, and keep thinking they are "helping" their communities by paying dues to organizations which do little other than hold lavish conventions in our hotels. By the way, don't worry about any of them reading this letter, remember, 'THEY DON'T READ!!!!
Total Thought: One Step Closer To Understanding Our World
Webster defines Devil as the chief evil spirit; a supernatural being, subordinate to and foe of God and tempter of human beings; Satan. Now Satan is defined as the great enemy of man and goodness. Devil is also defined as a Very wicked or malevolent person. A person who is mischievous, energetic, reckless, etc. Anything difficult, hard to operate, control or understand.
Let's take a look in your bible, Genesis 3:22, 22 And the Lord said, "The man (The European) has now become like one of US ( that means, you and me), knowing good and evil. He must not be allowed to reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life and eat, and live forever."23 So the Lord God banished (Sent him to the caves of the barren hillsides of Europe) him from the Garden of Eden (this is where Africans lived) to work the ground from which he had been taken.
Note: Many members of the masonic continue to carry out this bite of history in their initiation ritual. I hope this was a helpful lesson in your journey through this land of confusion. The Nightmare Stops When You Says It Stops, By You gaining The Knowledge Of Self.
Monday, 16 May 2005
The Sermon on the Warpland
And several strengths from drowsiness campaigned
but spoke in Single Sermon on the warpland.
And went about the warpland saying No.
"My people, black and black, revile the River.
Say that the River turns, and turn the River.
Say that our Something in doublepod contains
seeds for the coming hell and health together.
Prepare to meet
(sisters, brothers) the brash and terrible weather;
the bruising; the collapse of bestials, idols.
But then oh then!the stuffing of the hulls!
the seasoning of the perilously sweet!
the health! the heralding of the clear obscure!
Build now your Church, my brothers, sisters. Build
never with brick nor Corten nor with granite.
Build with lithe love. With love like lion-eyes.
With love like morningrise.
With love like black, our black
- Gwendolyn Brooks
Required reading with explaination
Before the Mayflower
by Lerone Bennett, Jr.
Traces black history from its origins in western Africa, through the transatlantic journey and slavery, the Reconstruction period, the Jim Crow era, and the civil rights movement, to life in the 1990s.
The Destruction of Black Civilization
by Chancellor Williams
THIS WORK IS A SUMMARY OF THE 16 YEARS OF RESEARCH and field studies which were intended for a 2-volume history of the African people. The writing plan for the two volumes would have required at least another five years, even if the serious impairment of my vision had not occurred. In the meantime there had developed an urgent need for the results of my research which concentrated on crucial areas in the history of the Blacks that had been either unknown, known and misinterpreted, or known but deliberately ignored. My own history classes were only a part of the rebellion against the only kind of textbooks available. It was a general rebellion against the subtle message from even the most "liberal" white authors (and their Negro disciples): "You belong to a race of nobodies. You have no worthwhile history to point to with pride."
The Destruction of Black Civilization, therefore, could not wait another five years just to be more detailed, impressive, or massive in scope, for a reinterpretation of the history of the African race could be compressed into a small work for background reading, and so written that black John Doe, cab driver or laborer, and Jane Doe, housemaid or waitress, as well as college students and professors, could read and understand the message from their forefathers and foremothers.
The Miseducation of the Negro
by Carter G. Woodson
"History shows that it does not matter who is in power...those who have not learned to do for themselves and have to depend solely on others never obtain any more rights and privilege in the end than they did in the beginning." - Dr. Carter G. Woodson
The United Independent Compensatory Code/System/Concept
by Dr. Neely Fuller
"If you do not understand White Supremacy (Rascism) what it is, and how it works, everything else that you understand will only confuse you." Dr. Neely Fuller Jr. (1971)
by Paulo Coelho
A fable about following your dream
by Ayn Rand
A passionate defense of individualism and presents an exalted view of man's creative potential.
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